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The geological monuments mean objects acting as a kind of chronicle the distant geological past defined structure and shape of our Earth, objects in which new species of minerals and long-extinct animals were discovered, geological hypotheses and theories born and tested, new types of minerals and technologies to process them were developed, affecting by way of human existence and its level of development. It can be made ten main types of geological monuments on the territory of Perm Region by scientific interest: tectonics, stratigraphical, paleontological, cosmogeneous, petrographic, mineralogical, geomorphic, karstological, hydrogeological, mining and geological.

Tectonic monuments reflect different stages in the evolution of the earth’s crust region (from the Riphean to the Cenozoic) and characterize the main types of deformations (brittle and plastic). Muravjiny Ridge represents eroded fragment of Precambrian folded structures, witness of the Kadomskaya collision «skew» nature. Watershed between Pelya and Tsepel is an example of the angular and stratigraphic dissent, it is proof of the existence of two struc- tural-tectonic floors (Baikal and Paleozoic). Three structural-tectonic floors, regional faults (Kuryksarskiy Thrust, normal faults and strike-slip-reverse faults) and Moyvinsky Protrusive Massif of ultramafites spatially combined in Tulymsky Tectonic Ensemble. Duzhny and Pechka Rocks are the examples of overthrust folding longitudinal buckling. Lun’evsko-Chusovskoy Thrust describes one of the biggest discontinuous of the Western Urals Folding Zone. Sos- novetsko-Yamzhachnaya anticline zone is one of fold-thrust plates, representing an example of vergent Hercynian folding in straticulate measures and overthrust drag and warp folds. Solikamskaya Depression is seen as an etalon of shallow salt tectonics, it’s an example of divergent gravitational gliding and current.

Stratigraphic monuments characterize lithologically and faunally different age sedimentary complexes of platform and the Urals (from the Riphean to the Mesozoic). So ridges Oslyanka and Basegi are stratotypes of the Upper Riphean Oslyanskaya suite, the lower member of Basegskaya group. The Bolshoy Haphar-Ne-Tump Mount is stratotype of the Lower-Middle Ordovician Hapharskaya suite, which mark the beginning of the Hercynian transgressive cycle; ridge Chuvalsky Rock is stratotype of the Middle-Upper Ordovician Chuvalskaya suite; Mount Kolpaki is stratotype of the Middle- Upper Ordovician Kolpakovskaya suite. The geological section of the late Ordovician Polyudovskaya suite are opened on the Pomyanenny Rock, and the section of the Middle Devonian eifilian stage Takatinskaya suite are opened on the Berezovy Rock ridge. Boundary layers of Lower and Middle Carboniferous are recorded in the Gostiny Island section, the section of the Upper Carboniferous and the border with the Lower Permian Asselsky stage are recorded in Plakun Rock. The Kosaya Rechka section is one of the most completed geologic sections of the turneysky stage, the Kyn section describes the Gzhelsky and Asselsky stages, and Filippovsky Quarry represents the section of the Saraninsky and Filippovsky horizons of the Kungursky stage. The Holodny Log section is stratotype of the Holodnolozhsky horizon of the Asselsky stage. The Belaya Gora is gipostratotype of the Lower Permian Sakmarsky stage. The section of Irensky horizont are exposed near Elkino village. Lower Triassic clays are exposed in the upper of the Chus River, and middle Jurassic deposits are exposed in the Ust’-Chernaya section.

The paleontological monuments characterize individual episodes of the development of Perm Region ancient animal life. Vavilon Quarry is the location of Riphean stromatolites and Shirokovskoe Reservoir is the location of Vendian mollusks. Ordovician Endocerotoidea and Nautiloidea are known in the Promysla section. Devonian fauna and flora are found in the Horoshovka (Placodermi and Goniatitida) and Koksohim (Clymeniida) sections. Carboniferous fossils are presented in Gubaha (Ant- hozoa), Polovinka and Krestovaya (flora and paleosoils) sections. Permian fauna are well represented in Rassolny (Goniatitida, Nautiloidea, Anthozoa), Chikali (Bryozoa reefs), Polazna (stromatolite and flora) sections. Unique Perman flora and fauna monuments include the following geological sections: Chekarda (Insecta and flora), Kluchiki (Pisces, Tetrapoda and Flora) and Ezhovo (Tetrapoda). The wellknown locations of Pleistocene mammals in the Kizel caves are not less significant.

The cosmological monuments include places of meteorites fall as well as meteorites. Severny Kolchim meteorite is a first type of ordinary chondrit, and Ohansk meteorite — the second type.

The petrographic monuments comprise the classical riftogenic and collision intrusive and effusive complexes as well as explosive-volcanic deposits. The Saranovsky Massif is a petrotype of the Upper Riphean saranovsky gabbroanorthosite-dunit-harzburgite complex. Volcanic rocks of Mount Blagodat’ are petrotypes of the Lower Vendian blagodatsky hyalomelanephelinite-trachybasalt-kimalnoite complex. The Troicky Massif is the only representative and petrotype of the Lower Vendian troicky alkaline granosyenite complex. The Mount Sokolinaya Volcano represents petrotype of the Lower Vendian dvorecky hyalomelanephelinite-trachybasalt complex. The Moyvinsky Massif acts as the most differential representative of the Lower-Middle Carboniferous velsovsky granitoid complex. The Kvarkushsky Extrusive Dome represents the Lower-Middle Carboniferous saklaimsorsky granosyenite-granite complex, and intrusive pyroklastites of Polyudovsko-Kolchimskoe High are the etalons of a new genetic type of volcanogenic (explosive and mud- injection) rocks.

The mineralogical monuments are deposits, which are formed with the participation of mantle as well as crust processes. The Saranovskoe Deposit is a unique mineralogical object of the Urals, which is characterized by a large number of minerals (over 140), including the new minerals (uvarovite and shuiskite) and minerals of chromium. The Strelny Rock is a location of diagenetic flints. The Verhnekamskoe Deposit is a giant deposit of potassium and magnesium salts. Mineralogical monuments include Promysla area placers: the Upper Koyvinskaya (gold-platinum), the Bolshe-Shaldinskaya (gold) and the Krestovozdvizhenskaya (gold, diamond). Quartz-crystalbearing veins are typical for the Olhovskoe Deposit which also contain citrine. The Biserskaya Deposits Group differs by the presence of twisted individuals and various titanic minerals. The Chuvalskaya Vein and the Weinberg Deposit are representatives of the gold-quartz formations. The Weinberg Deposit also is characterized by the presence of rare-metal minerals. The Chastinskaya Group of Mineral Deposits is a volkonskoite exits, which was discovered on the Perm Region territory.

The Mazuevskoe Deposit is the largest in Russia strontium ore deposit. The Ordinskaya Deposits Group is a source of ornamental gypsum. The cuprous sandstones of Perm Region contain about 15 minerals of copper, two of which (volborthite and vesignieite) were discovered for the first time. The Visherskaya Group represents not only the occurrence of diamonds, but also a place of discovery about 270 minerals. The Veslyana is an occurrence of gold and amalgam. The Shakva River basin is a scene of biogenic mineral formation.

The karstological monuments were formed by the activities of the ground water in easily soluble carbonate, sulphate and haloid rocks. They are represented by caves and glades. There are the Diviya (the longest cave in the Urals), the Bol’shaya Pashyiskaya Cave, the Mariinskaya Cave, the Ponysh Valley karst complexes, the Pehach Rock, the Dyrovatye Rebra Rock among of the carbonate rocks. There are the Kungurskaya Ice Cave (the longest cave in the province with a multi-years ice), the longest in the world Ordinskaya Underwater Cave, the large karst systems Kishertsky Suhodol and Mazuevskaya Depression in sulphate rocks.

The geomorphic monuments are owe by their origin to the interaction of three forces: inner forces of the earth (tectonics and volcanism), solar power, ensuring the circulation of water, temperature fluctuations and the organisms vital activity, as well as gravitation, causing transportation and deposition of destroyed material. Nearly all geomorphologically expressed objects tend to the area of sustainable rise in the eastern part of region. The cliffs associate with river erosion. The Vetlan and the Us’vinskye Stolby are cliffs in carbonate rocks, the Podkamennaya Mount — in sulphate rocks. The relics are products of physical and chemical weathering. The Kamennyi Gorod represents the group of relics, and plateau Kvarkush is the set of erosion and accumulative forms of relief. The significant role as the factors of their formation played the freeze-unfreeze processes.

The hydrogeological monuments are presented by ascending springs of various mineral waters, which tend mainly to Preduralskiy and Predtimanskiy Troughs. The Usolskie Springs are discharge places of waters from brine-extract wells. Waters with dissolved organic mat- ter of oil origin discharge in the Petropavlovsky Spring. The Blue Lake is a vaucluse, formed strong ascending flows of karst water supplied from the siphonal circulation zone. The Kizelovsky Mine Waters are characterized by very acid ferro-aluminum composition. The Klyuchevsky Springs are known since the V—VI centuries as the springs of low minerali- zed sulfate-calcium waters. Chloride-natrium water enriched with radium and radon discharges in the Berezovsky Spring. The Water- fall Plakun formed from spring discharged from hydrocarbonate-calcium waters on the Earth’s surface. The Larevsky Springs and Lakes are group of saline springs with a huge mud bed. The Pydolsky Spring is the most powerful in the region source of hydrosulfuric waters.

The mining and geological monuments. The Prikamye history was inseparably linked with the history of developing mineral resources of the region, serves as a testing area, where Russia mining and extractive industries has done its first steps. Traces of mining and factory affairs scattered throughout Prikamye, including the towns and cities. Many of them have emerged and developed mainly for mining and processing of local minerals. The types of minerals now exploited define present mining face of the region. Since XV century salt-works have been deployed by brothers Kalinnikovy, they began to build saltern on the Borovaya River. The copper-mines has arisen in the Perm Territory at the II century B. C. and was presented by Eneolithic metallurgy hearth. However, ancestor of Russia non-ferrous metallurgy is considered the Pyskorsky factory built in 1634. Iron-mines, as an industry, originated in 1640 with the construction of the first in the Prikamye Krasnoborsky official iron-processing plant in the Cherdynsky County. Coal industry in the Prikamye originated in 1797 from the mine «Zaprudnaya» in Kizel. Diamond-works in the Urals and Russia were began with the Ust-Tyrymskaya placer, were opened and developed under the leadership of V. O. Ruzhitsky in 1942. Prikamye golden-works arose from the discovering of the Poludenka valley gold sand (Krestovozdvizhensky Gold-Works village) by serf prospector Prosvirin in 1820. Balneal-works originated in the Kluchy in 1865, thanks to the efforts of Suksunsky Plant doctor A. P. Shcherbakov. Chromite mining was began from developing of the Saranovsky chromite deposit in 1889. Gypsumworks originated as cottage in the late XIX century. Lapidary production of gypsum-selenite started on the Iren’ River in 1892. Potassium mining was found in 1925 after drilling saline reservoir (the well № 1) on the Solikamsk outskirts. The oil industry was began in 1928 from the first spouting well nearly the Verhnechusovskye Gorodki. This discovery marked the opening of a new Volgouralskaya Oil Province.

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